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Văn học đô thị - mảnh đất bị bỏ hoang - ThoTre.Com

Văn học đô thị - mảnh đất bị bỏ hoang


“Văn học đô thị” được hiểu là văn học phản ánh cuộc sống ở các đô thị từ mọi góc độ cũng như khía cạnh. Đối tượng sáng tác “văn học đô thị” không nhất thiết phải là người được sinh ra, lớn lên ở đô thị hay các thành phố lớn mà quan trọng là tác phẩm của họ viết về đô thị và viết như thế nào.

Trong nền văn học Việt Nam, gắn với cụm từ văn học nông thôn “Nhà văn của nông dân”, “nhà văn của làng quê” độc giả có thể kể tới các nhà văn như: Nam Cao, Kim Lân, Lê Lựu… hoặc “Nhà văn mặc áo lính” có Chu Lai, Nguyễn Minh Châu, Xuân Thiều… Nhưng “Nhà văn của đô thị” thì dường như chưa có ai. Theo ý kiến của PSG. TS Nguyễn Thị Minh Thái thì cho đến nay vẫn chưa có một cuốn tiểu thuyết nào viết về “Văn học đô thị” lại vượt qua “Số đỏ” của Vũ Trọng Phụng. Tuy nhiên, ngay với bản thân Vũ Trọng Phụng lại được độc giả nhắc đến với tên gọi “ông vua phóng sự”. Có thể nói sự ra đời ít ỏi, có phần thưa thớt, đứt đoạn của “văn học đô thị” trong nhiều thập kỷ qua nên nó chưa tạo ra một dòng văn học - được chia theo đề tài, tồn tại song song độc lập với các đề tài văn học khác.

Cũng theo bà Nguyễn Thị Minh Thái, sở dĩ có nhiều cây bút trẻ, nhiều nhà văn sống ở các đô thị mà chúng ta vẫn chưa có “văn học đô thị” vì ngay cả Hà Nội của chúng ta có quá nhiều con người có căn tính nông dân sống ở đó, Hà Nội đang trở thành cái “ao làng” đầy “bông phèng”.

Còn nhà lý luận phê bình Bùi Việt Thắng thì cho rằng: Không nên phân biệt văn học nông thôn, thành thị hay công nhân mà gọi chung là văn học Việt Nam. Cách đây khoảng 10 năm người ta gọi Nguyễn Thị Thu Huệ là nhà văn của thị dân, tất nhiên là không phải, mặc dù tác phẩm viết về người thành phố. Nhưng như thế không có nghĩa là, có một loại nhà văn của thị dân, nông dân, công dân”.

Liệu có phải vì các tác giả của chúng ta mới chỉ điểm xuyết chất “văn học đô thị”. Hoặc cái gọi là “văn học đô thị” mới chỉ tồn tại trong tương quan so sánh giữ nông thôn và thành phố, giữa cái cũ và mới, cái đang tồn tại và cái đã mất ở cả phạm vi không gian và thời gian. Trong bức tranh đó, người đọc dễ dàng nhận ra sự đổ vỡ của nền tảng và những choáng ngợp nảy sinh từ cái mới. Dẫn đến định kiến trước cái mới - từ cuộc sống đô thị mang tới với cái tốt - xấu đan xen. Nhưng con người dễ bị mất thăng bằng và rơi vào cái xấu. Vì thế, cái nền của đô thị mờ đi và bối cảnh của nông thôn lại hiện lên. Nông thôn tồn tại ở dạng hoài niệm hoặc hiện thực trong hành trình trở về với cuộc sống cao cả con người. Nên “văn học đô thị” thuần nhất mà phản ánh được đa chiều cái cốt lõi xâu xa bên trong hầu như chưa có.

Môi trường sống không phải là yếu tố tiên quyết cho nhà văn chọn đề tài, nhưng nó có ảnh hưởng đến ngòi bút của nhà văn, bởi nhà văn cần yếu tố thực tế, đành rằng thực tế có nhiều cách, không nhất thiết viết về thành phố biển thì tác giả phải đến đó, viết về một sa mạc chết tác giả phải đặt chân đến đó. Nhất là trong điều kiện hiện nay, khi mà Internet phát triển, mọi khoảng cách không gian dường như không còn ngăn cách. Tuy nhiên, ngoài yếu tố “thật”, tác phẩm “hay” còn bao gồm nhiều yếu tố khác, trong đó cả cảm xúc, tâm tư của chính tác giả. Vậy thì, đa phần nhà văn của chúng ta được sinh ra ở nông thôn, am hiểu về nông thôn họ sẽ dễ dàng viết về nông thôn hơn là các đô thị. Trong khi cuộc sống đô thị lại ít tính ổn định, các cây bút chưa được tiếp xúc, cọ xát nhiều cả về không gian cũng như thời gian.

Khi nói về “văn học đô thị” nhà lý luận phê bình Bùi Việt Thắng nói thêm: “Văn học đô thị là từ chỉ văn học ở lãnh thổ miền Nam dưới quyền kiểm soát của chính phủ Sài Gòn tồn tại trong các đô thị, chúng ta gọi là văn học đô thị của miền Nam trước đây”. Nghĩa là, nếu phân chia ở phạm vi hẹp giữa các “miền” thì chúng ta đã từng có văn học đô thị miền Nam. Và hiện giờ không còn nữa. Còn nếu không phân chia theo thể loại thì những năm 1930 - 1945 “văn học đô thị” đã xuất hiện với đỉnh cao là tiểu thuyết “Số đỏ” của Vũ Trọng Phụng.

Có lẽ khó mà xác lập được khi nào “văn học đô thị” sẽ lại xuất hiện và phát triển. Bởi chọn đề tài nào cho tác phẩm hoàn toàn là quyền của nhà văn mà ít bị chi phối bởi yếu tố khách quan. “Văn học đô thị” sẽ phát triển nếu tự trong lòng những đô thị ổn định và nảy sinh dưới dạng tự nhiên, thiết yếu. Và biết đâu, chính khoảng trống này sẽ là cơ hội cho những cây bút trẻ tìm riêng cho mình một lối đi.

NGÂN HÀ
Nguồn: Văn học quê nhà


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    25/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    3)
  • Tình thơ, tình người (
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    19/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    3)
  • Mong muốn của một cây viết trẻ về hoạt động của các Hội VHNT địa phương (
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    9/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    3)
  • Nguyễn Trọng Tạo và “Thơ viết trong đêm tự tử” (
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    9/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    3)
  • Truyện ngắn 8x – một thái độ sống và sáng tạo (
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    4/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    3)
  • Kinh dị nhục thể trong văn học: Làm nghèo thẩm mỹ độc giả (
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    18/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    2)
  • Văn học trinh thám kinh dị: Hướng đi mới của văn học trẻ Việt Nam? (
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    18/
    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138

    Warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/thotre/public_html/luutru/include/details.php on line 138
    2)
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